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Telecinco y los excesos de autoestima de la CNC

10 febrero 2013 - 11:57 - Autor: lainformacion.com

No sabemos si en un último acto agónico o más bien seminal, la Comisión Nacional de la Competencia (CNC) acaba de multar con 15,6 millones a Telecinco (Mediaset España) por incumplir sus compromisos tras la absorción de Cuatro.

A finales del año 2009, ya se sabía que esta operación de concentración presentaba aspectos muy polémicos y acuerdos que podrían implicar restricciones a la competencia. Según un comunicado enviado por Telecinco a la CNMV, en diciembre de ese mismo año, la nueva plataforma contaría con el 41,5% del mercado publicitario. Por aquel entonces, quedaba pendiente aún la integración de La Sexta en Antena 3. Pero no era ningún secreto que ambas operaciones conducirían al control de al menos un 80% del mercado publicitario y de casi un 50% de la audiencia televisiva.

Con cifras tan alarmantes, la obligación de la CNC era mantenerse al tanto del cumplimiento de las condiciones que ella misma había establecido para autorizar la operación de Telecinco. Sin embargo, la autoridad de la competencia estaba completamente atrapada. Por un lado, los cambios regulatorios de los años 2009 y 2010 trazaron una autopista para la formación de un duopolio televisivo en España. Y la abultada deuda de Prisa y Mediapro, junto con la retirada de la publicidad a TVE, hicieron el resto.

Al final, y como algunos estudiosos de la concentración temíamos, la carencia de un órgano como el Consejo Superior del Audiovisual, contemplado en la ley, pero olvidado por los dos partidos mayoritarios, y el puente de plata dispuesto para las dos mayores cadenas en abierto en España, condujeron a una concentración sin parangón en la Unión Europea. Hoy día, las plataformas de Antena 3 y Mediaset España  controlan el 56% de la audiencia y el 90% de la publicidad contratada, además de un buen puñado de contenidos Premium.

Cuando las autoridades de la CNC tuvieron que dilucidar  la integración de La Sexta en Antena 3, y enfrentarse sin cortapisa alguna al hecho evidente de duopolio televisivo en España, trataron de frenar la integración de La Sexta en Antena 3. Pero era ya demasiado tarde. Habían pasado casi tres años y ahora parecía un agravio comparativo que Berlusconi hubiera podido disponer de casi todas las facilidades, mientras que un empresario español como Lara se vería obligado a transitar por una estrecha carretera. Así que, el Gobierno del Partido Popular haciendo uso de sus atribuciones permitió esta operación.

Pero volviendo al asunto que nos ocupa, la CNC puso en su día a Telecinco algunos condicionantes, fundamentalmente en los apartados de publicidad, contenidos y derechos deportivos para que pudiese integrar Cuatro. Y acusa ahora a la plataforma italiana de incumplir cuatro de estos compromisos. Sin embargo, si echamos un vistazo hacia atrás, lo cierto es que resultaba muy difícil resistirse a no seguir avanzando por la mullida alfombra que nuestras autoridades habían dispuesto. Por ejemplo, una vez que el gobierno de Rodríguez Zapatero dejó sin participación publicitaria en el año 2010 a TVE, permitió que la cadena italiana aumentase en el ejercicio siguiente sus ingresos publicitarios en un 41,3%.

¿Para qué recordar entonces, que los canales de lo que ahora es Mediaset España debían comprometerse a no desarrollar políticas comerciales y, en particular de precios, que supusiesen la venta vinculada a los anunciantes de paquetes comerciales de publicidad de canales de televisión. O que fuese necesario separar de manera clara Publiespaña y Publimedia, con  directivos diferentes en ambas empresas?.

Un somero balance de las consecuencias que ha traído este elevado grado de concentración publicitaria  arroja resultados muy interesantes. El primero de ellos, y según la revista Anunciantes, ha sido la subida generalizada de los precios, nada menos que un 25% en el año 2011, mientras que la saturación publicitaria pasó de doce a veinte minutos por hora. Si la CNC –que tan proclive parece estar últimamente a la Academia-, hubiese leído a los profesores Cunningham y Alexander (2004) sabría que una excesiva concentración en TV acarrea siempre estos efectos.

Más consecuencias indeseables verificadas desde el año 2011:

-          A mayor dominio publicitario de las dos grandes plataformas descienden de manera alarmante los ingresos del resto de canales. Comparen sino la facturación de los dos últimos años.

-          La concentración ha acabado por modificar toda la cadena de valor televisiva.

-          No se dispone en estos momentos de un mercado mejor segmentado para los targets publicitarios y además se restringe la supervivencia del resto de los canales.

Así las cosas, y aunque estas resoluciones nos parezcan muy loables y técnicamente  adecuadas -tanto que Antena 3 podría poner sus barbas a remojo-, creemos que los excesos de autoestima que, en esta última etapa, está practicando la CNC no llegan ni por asomo a superar su prudencia de antaño.

José Vicente García Santamaría

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¿Cómo podría explicarse la subida de precios un 25% como consecuencia de la concentración del mercado publicitario? ¿El hecho de que haya un duopolio en cuanto a la publicidad genera esta subida de precios?

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