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Investigadores de Francia y el Reino Unido desarrollan un láser de “rayos-T” 10.000 veces más potente que los actuales

29 abril 2011 - 13:16 - Autor:

Si los rayos-X permiten mirar debajo de la piel humana, los rayos-T anticipan un futuro donde todo se podrá mirar por debajo de su piel, para estudiar la fina estructura interna de los materiales a un nivel de detalle sin precedentes.

Los rayos-T son son la radiación que todos los objetos emiten en una longitud de onda que varía entre un milímetro y 100 micrómetros. Estas ondas electromagnéticas, situadas entre las de radio y las de luz visible, tiene la capacidad de atravesar prácticamente cualquier material (excepto el metal y el agua) para descubrirnos sus entrañas de una forma y detalle desconocida.

Un equipo de investigadores de Francia y el Reino Unido han desarrollado un láser de rayos-T que es alrededor de 10.000 veces más potente que cualquier otro dispositivo similar y que por primera vez puede emitir en pulsos por separado en lugar de en un haz continuo de rayos-T.

Estos haces de radiación del orden de los terahercios constituyen un área de creciente interés para los científicos e ingenieros, ya que los objetos que son opacos a luz ordinaria, se convierten en transparentes por la radiación entre los 0,3 y los 10 terahercios, lo que permite dejar atrás la utopía de la visión a través de las ropas o de las paredes.

Una de las ventajas claves de los rayos-T es que no son potencialmente dañinos como ocurre con los rayos-X, así que pueden atravesar las células vivas sin causarles ningún daño. Al contrario que los rayos-X de mayor energía, los T no tienen la energía suficiente para “ionizar” un átomo, haciendo saltar uno de sus electrones al golpearlo. Esta ionización produce daños celulares que pueden provocar lesiones serias e incluso cáncer.

Normalmente los escáneres de rayos-T son un haz continúo que traspasa los materiales y rebotan cuando encuentran un material diferente en su camino, produciéndose cambios en la energía de las ondas de rebote que pueden ser medidas por un aparato que reproduce una imagen.

El nuevo enfoque que ha multiplicado por 10.000 su efectividad se basa en un láser de cascada cuántica que emite un tren de pulsos discontinuos de gran alcance que podrían ser detectados como una firma espectral, una imagen de la forma en que el pulso cambia o se retarda después de la propagación a través del material.

La tecnología en torno a los rayos-T fue desarrollada por primera vez por los astrónomos para detectar rayos cósmicos T, pero en la última década ha habido un progreso considerable en la producción y la detección de los rayos-T que provienen de fuentes terrestres.

Además, aunque la radiación de terahercios no penetra a través de los metales y del agua, sí lo hace a través de muchos materiales como el cuero, los tejidos textiles, el cartón y el papel. Estas características hacen que los dispositivos que operan en el orden de los terahercios sean una de las herramientas más prometedoras para los aeropuertos y la seguridad en general.

El profesor de la Universidad de Leeds Edmund Linfield, que ha trabajado en el proyecto junto con investigadores de la Universidad Denis Didercot en París y el Centro Nacional Francés de Investigación Científica (CNRS), afirma que este nuevo método podría llevar a la espectroscopia a un nivel de detalle sin precedentes, permitiendo explorar las estructuras a escala nanométrica.

Probabilidades de verlo con estos ojos antes de 10 años: Muchas. Desde luego esta tecnología no es más que otra manera de generar y detectar la radiación de terahercios que está probándose hoy en día.

Cada sistema tiene sus ventajas y desventajas, dependiendo de la aplicación específica; pero ganarse un X10.000 de golpe ya es un buen turbo a la hora de convertirse en un killer en su campo.

Fuentes: Universidad de Leeds y EMT

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