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Tres siglos de viaje submarino: la evolución del traje de buzo

13 mayo 2013 - 9:28 - Autor:

Según llega el calor y el buen tiempo, llega el momento de comprarle al crío las gafas y el tubo para bucear. Todos nos hemos imaginado alguna vez explorando las profundidades oceánicas, prácticamente ignotas. Y seguirán así durante mucho tiempo.

Y eso que la  tecnología en cuando a inmersión humana ha avanzado muchísimo. Os queremos presentar una breve historia del traje de buzo: desde los modelos más ortopédicos (¡y peligrosos!) del siglo XVIII a las actuales maravillas tecnológicas, ha sido un largo camino para, al final, no encontrar ningún pulpo gigante.

El traje de  Beauve

Año: 1715

Características: Un primitivo ejemplo de los primeros prototios. Se trataba de un traje de cuero recubría una placa de acero para proteger el pecho, e incluía, zapatos con peso para anclarse al fondo del lecho marino y los tubos para respirar.

El espantapájaros

Año: 1797

Características: Un modelo poco práctico, que dejaba piernas y brazos al descubierto y no contaba con botas de ningún tipo. Los pesos se llevaban colgando de la cintura. Eso sí: nos encanta la escafandra.

El traje de Siebe

Año: 1837

El alemán Siebe creó el que podría llamarse el primer traje de buzo con conceptos modenos que aún se siguen usando. Su modelo de casco con 12 tornillos y 3 ventanillas (una delante y otras dos a los lados) se convirtió en estándar y estuvo en uso durante muchos años. No fue más que una de las muchas invenciones

 

El traje de Baker

Año: Principios del siglo XX

Características: Uno de los primeros trajes cuya efectividad fue probada, y que fue sometido a una  prueba de fuego. Entre 1907 y 1911, Wiliam Baker lo utilizó para apuntarlas los cimientos de la Catedral de Winchester, inundados y en peligro de derrumbarse totalmente.

El aparato submarino de Hall & Reese

Año: 1908

Características: Popular durante algunos años, fue rápidamente superado por el Mark V. Su escafandra le daba aspecto de robot de película de ciencia ficción de los 50.

Incorporaba una bombona de ‘Oxilito’, un compuesto químico que emitía oxígeno y absorbía dióxido de carbono.

 

El ADS de MacDufee

Año: 1915

Características: nunca se produjo en masa, pero es uno de los más impresionantes y complejos. Pesaba 250 kilos y no era impermeable: el agua era evacuada por los pies, gracias a una bomba que funcionaba desde la superficie. Alcanzó la respetable cantidad de 65 metros, todo un logro para la época.

 

Mark V

Año: 1918

Características: Posiblemente el modelo más exitoso de la historia de los trajes submarinos, utilizado hasta mediados de los 80. El traje de goma aislaba totalmente al buzo y le permitía bajar a mayores profundidades. El casco se encajaba con un sello de goma. Un clásico.

El traje de Neufelt y Kuhnke

Año: 1923

Características: Puede que nos recuerde al mueco de Michelín, pero era en su día el traje más avanzado: compacto y duradero, era capaz de descender hasta 160 metros, y disponía de un teléfono para comunicarse con la superficie.

 El Jim

Año: Diseñado a finales de los 60, utilizado por primera vez en 1974

Características: Un traje muchísimo más aparatoso y compacto, podría calificarse como un “mini-submarino”. El traje tenía su propia atmósfera, con lo cual se podía respirar aire normal y mantener una temperatura estable en su interior. La primera vez que se usó fue en… ¡las Islas Canarias! Su record está en descender 381 metros y andar durante dos horas y media, un record que aún permanece.

El WASP

Año: 1981

Característica: nada que ver con el grupo, se trató de la evolución lógica del JIM. Un modelo mucho más moderno, autopropulsado y construido con aluminio y fibra de carbono. Capaces de mantener seguro a su portador hasta a profundidades de 700 metros.

 

Más información en Darkroastedblend, BBC, Oobject y Wikipedia.

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Buah! El Mark V me recuerda al Big Daddy de BioShock, estupendas fotografías!

Gracias por compartirlo.

EL traje de Siebe es el Ciclope buzo de la pelicula de bob esponja

Esta es la historia de mi padre, quién dedico su vida al buceo.
Sus casi 60 años de su vida dedicado a ello, le llenó de satisfacción.
Comenzó a los 15 años.
Heredó de su bisabuelo y su padre la escafandra Siebe Gorman&co con la que trabajó por toda España.
Espero que sea de vuestro agrado.
Un saludo

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