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Reinventar la solidaridad: bonos de impacto social

16 febrero 2012 - 0:22 - Autor:

Este artículo es una colaboración especial de Catalina Parra, fundadora de la consultora “Filantropía Inteligente“, presidenta de la Fundación Hazloposible y profesora en el IE.

Nuestras ONG están sedientas de financiación. Muchas de ellas están pasando por malos momentos económicos y el resto pueden pasar por ellos en el próximo año si no lo remedian pronto. Últimamente he mantenido varias conversaciones con directivos de organizaciones que se distinguen por la calidad de su trabajo, su transparencia y la búsqueda de la sostenibilidad. Todos andan en la búsqueda activa de nuevas formas de financiación.

Las donaciones y subvenciones escasean, y se abren paso nuevos instrumentos de financiación como los préstamos condicionados al resultado social, el capital filantrópico o  las inversiones de impacto. Una de estas inversiones que más curiosidad despiertan son los bonos de impacto social.

Los bonos de impacto social son un instrumento de financiación que pertenece al grupo de los llamados “pay for success” o pago por éxito. Esta es su primera característica. Estos bonos “pagan”, es decir, devuelven beneficios, sólo cuando la misión social a la que se destinan los fondos tiene éxito.

Y cuando hablamos de pagar, incluimos tanto al inversor como a la entidad social que trabaja en el terreno.

Ya se han realizado experiencias con este tipo de instrumento en el Reino Unido, Estados Unidos y Australia.

Barack Obama ha propuesto recientemente dedicar una partida de 100 millones de dólares a este tipo de iniciativas para trabajar en distintas necesidades sociales. Como siempre los anglosajones nos toman la delantera pero al mismo tiempo nos ofrecen la oportunidad de innovar. Para explicar en qué consisten utilizaré el ejemplo de la primera iniciativa llevada a cabo en Reino Unido.

Lo primero es distinguir un problema social, es importante que esté bien identificado y que sea susceptible de ser descrito con indicadores numéricos concretos. En este caso se quería trabajar con los reclusos de la prisión de Peterborough, para mejorar su integración social a la salida de la prisión.

Elegido el problema y la población objetivo, es importante definir cuáles van a ser los métodos y parámetros de medida de resultados que permitirán analizar la eficacia y eficiencia del proyecto acometido y, por tanto, el retorno de la inversión. En el caso inglés se estableció una metodología, destacando el número de casos de reincidencia de los exreclusos.

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Se selecciona después una entidad que trabaje en el ámbito social y que genere confianza en el cumplimiento de sus objetivos. The One Service fue el consorcio de entidades sociales que se coordinaron para llevar a cabo el trabajo de campo con 3.000 exreclusos.

A esta entidad se le pone un objetivo de impacto social a alcanzar, y se condiciona el pago a la consecución del mismo. En el proyecto de Petersborough se identificó como necesaria una mejora del 7,5 % en la tasa de reincidencia para que la entidad cobrara los gastos presupuestados del proyecto más un máximo de un 13% anual en función de los resultados obtenidos (ver flujo de fondos “B”).

Para evitar que la entidad social corra el riesgo de no poder realizar el proyecto, el dinero lo adelantan unos inversores privados (ver flujo de fondos “A”). Cuando el trabajo está realizado, si se han cumplido los objetivos, la administración pública (en nuestro ejemplo el Ministerio de Justicia Británico) devuelve a la entidad los fondos acordados para la realización del proyecto y el rendimiento financiero extra en función de la consecución de objetivos (flujo “B”), y esta se lo retorna al inversor (flujo “c”), que obtiene de nuevo su capital invertido y unas ganancias a cambio del riesgo corrido. Estos flujos pueden establecerse directamente o a través de un intermediario que además es el que planifica, cataliza y controla el proyecto (Social Finance en nuestro ejemplo, flujo alternativo “d”).

Si no se consiguen los objetivos, el inversor pasa a ser filántropo, automáticamente. Es decir, en la toma de decisión inicial, el inversor que va a financiar el proyecto sabe que es posible su inversión acabe siendo donación.

Con este nuevo instrumento de financiación se obtienen múltiples beneficios.

  1. El más inmediato y tradicional es el de mejora social. Los beneficiarios directos (ex convictos en nuestro ejemplo) mejoran sus posibilidades de reinserción social, laboral y en definitiva vital.
  2. La sociedad de se beneficia de una menor criminalidad, y por ello la administración pública reduce significativamente sus gastos en atención social (búsqueda, captura, juicio, prisión y reinserción de nuevo). Reduce los costes en mayor proporción que el gasto que ha hecho en el programa y elimina del todo el gasto en programas que no consiguen el resultado acordado.
  3. La entidad social ha llevado a cabo su misión con fondos flexibles.
  4. El inversor ha hecho posible que todo ello sea realidad, recibiendo además un beneficio económico por el riesgo asumido y pudiendo invertir de nuevo ese mismo capital en otra causa social.

Falta mucho para medir los resultados finales en Petersborough, pero el proyecto ha empezado bien.

Este es el servicio de reinserción más efectivo que he visto en 25 años como director de centros penitenciariorios. comenta un Director, HMP Peterborough después del primer año del programa.

Usando teorías económicas se pueden realizar proyectos sociales en los que todos ganamos. Especialmente cuando por la crisis los fondos no fluyen tan fácilmente y hay que asegurar su efectividad.

¿A qué estamos esperando en España para lanzar algo así? Desde aquí reto a que algún político le eche un vistazo y lo considere seriamente.

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Aunque aun estemos lejos de este planteamiento, la profesionalizacion de la Gerencia en la que estan entrando las ONG en España, me hace pensar que no tardaremos tanto tiempo en llegar a un planteamiento similar en España

El bono social, es propio de los emprendedores sociales, inteligentes, reponsables y emocionales

El bono social, como respaldo, cumpliría una verdadera función y para quitarle el miedo al donante….. podría ser que el Municipio o Depto o Nación, donde se desarrolle el Proyecto, AVALE la inversión, hasta el momento en que deje de ser rentable y que el portador del bien perciba un interés, que no sobrepase el % Bcario Normal. Los Estados, por pobres que sean, deben responder por sus ciudadanos y mas cuando están evadiendo permanentemente esta responsabilidad. Se supone ademas que un Proyecto debe tener analisis de Costos, P&G de sus sectores productivos y que conforman la cadena, analisis y Programación de la INVERSIÓN y su linea de Crédito. Esto para determinar que cualquier Proyecto que se piense realizar, debe tener muy claro, su rentabilidad para ser incluido en un Programa Nacional o Municipal. Daríamos por un hecho, que el programa seria un éxito. Son muchos los factores que debe tener como el Administrativo, Productivo, Proceso, Transporte, Comercialización etc, Tengo el Proyecto que su modelo aplica a cualquier tipo de Industria y cumple al darle al portador, no solo seguridad, sino sus intereses de Capital en Empresa altamente rentables y de beneficios Social. Lo que Uds, plantean, trae una consecuencia y es desmotivante para el ideologo o Director del Proyecto y sus Beneficiarios. En mi país se dice….que es como tener mama pero MUERTA…..pero lo bueno, es SOLUCIONABLE. Ej…..si los beneficiarios tuvieras los recursos, no necesitarían los BONOS DE IMPACTO SOCIAL. QUE LOS GOBIERNOS AVALEN AL TENEDOR DEL BONO….Gracias perdonen….quiero ayudar y tengo 12 años en ese tema.

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Durante más de 100 años la comunidad científica mantuvo un intenso debate sobre el origen y significado del altruismo hasta que en la década de 1.960, el biólogo William D.Hamilton creó una fórmula matemática que relacionaba el altruismo con el grado de parentesco entre el que da y el que recibe. Desde aquí nos proponemos poner a prueba esa ecuación al mismo tiempo que descubrimos a personas e iniciativas que luchan por sacar adelante causas sociales.