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De leyes y ataques informáticos

24 diciembre 2010 - 6:00 - Autor:

A menos que tengan Uds. un inusitado interés por conocer la cárcel de primera mano, vayan quitándose pronto de la cabeza esa fea costumbre de atacar sitios web cuando algo nos les gusta, porque la ley ya no les ampara.

A estas alturas lo sabrán ya, pero esta semana ha entrado en vigor la enésima reforma del Código Penal, la introducida por la Ley Orgánica 5/2010, que pone patas arriba unas cuantas cuestiones, entre las que llama la atención el tratamiento jurídico que concede a la última moda de Internet, la de los ataques de denegación de servicio distribuido -o DDoS según sus siglas en inglés-.

No es nuevo. En los últimos tiempos hemos sido testigos de la fulgurante actividad de grupos ciberactivistas y, en particular, de Anonymous, que, a través del portal 4chan, han logrado convocar a miles de internautas y tumbar con su ayuda las páginas web de SGAE, el Ministerio de Cultura, Visa o Mastercard, en repulsa a actividades que entendían censoras de la red.Lo que ocurre es que éste, el de los ataques DDoS, es un problema muy complejo de atajar, tanto en lo técnico como en lo jurídico. Se preguntarán por qué.

En el apartado técnico, un ataque DDOS no implica modificar páginas web ni obtener información de ellas, su cometido es entorpecer el acceso de los usuarios a un servidor, de manera que consiguen el objetivo de tumbar una página web agotando el ancho de banda o sobrepasando la capacidad de procesamiento a través de la solicitud masiva de usuarios. Algo así como un embudo, por el que fluye demasiada agua y se desborda.

En lo que se refiere a la parte jurídica (aquí viene lo bueno), el hasta ahora vigente Código Penal establecía en su artículo 264-2 una pena de 1 a 3 años de prisión para el que “por cualquier medio destruya, altere, inutilice o de cualquier otro modo dañe los datos, programas o documentos electrónicos ajenos contenidos en redes, soportes o sistemas informáticos”. Como es rápidamente deducible, dicha redacción exigía destruir, alterar, inutilizar o dañar datos de un sistema para que el comportamiento fuese considerado delito, es decir, que el fin último del ataque de denegación de servicio, la simple paralización de un sistema informático, si no comportaba un daño efectivo a sus archivos, no constituía delito. Por tal motivo, los ataques que Ustedes hayan leído, visto u oido en prensa resultaron impunes.

Pero, afortunadamente para los detractores del vandalismo en la red -entre los que orgullosamente me cuento-, esta situación de impunidad tocará su fin con la entrada en vigor de la reforma del Código Penal, que establece la siguiente redacción para su artículo 264-2: “El que por cualquier medio, sin estar autorizado y de manera grave obstaculizara o interrumpiera el funcionamiento de un sistema informático ajeno, introduciendo, transmitiendo, dañando, borrando, deteriorando, alterando, suprimiendo o haciendo inaccesibles datos informáticos, cuando el resultado producido fuera grave, será castigado, con la pena de prisión de seis meses a tres años”.

A resultas de lo anterior, desde ya, la acción de interrumpir el funcionamiento de un sistema informático es delito, con independencia de que se generen o no daños. En definitiva, lo que antes era únicamente moralmente reprochable, ahora es jurídicamente perseguible.

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[...] This post was mentioned on Twitter by la_informacion, Aaron Mateos, Alejandro Touriño and others. Alejandro Touriño said: En el blog: De leyes y ataques informáticos http://t.co/3InRMlE via @la_informacion #in [...]

Buenas tardes Alejandro,
En España tuvimos en el 2006 el primer caso de condena efectiva por ataques de denegación de servicio que sento precendente. Lo puedes consultar en http://inza.wordpress.com/2006/02/15/el-caso-ronnie-ataque-dos-denegacion-de-servicio/ o googleando un rato.
UN saludo
Quntin

A-Quintin, fíjate que la noticia que linkeas dice que fue condenado por un delito de daños, que es justo la diferencia de la que habla el artículo.

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Alejandro Touriño

Alejandro Touriño en ECIJAAlejandro es Licenciado en Derecho por la Universidad de Santiago de Compostela; Máster en Derecho Internacional y Relaciones Internacionales por la Universidad Complutense de Madrid y Máster en Práctica Jurídica por la Escuela de Práctica Jurídica de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Ha realizado cursos de postgrado en instituciones de prestigio como la University of Brighton, la WIPO Academy o el Instituto de Empresa, en materias relacionadas con el Derecho Comparado, la Propiedad Intelectual y el Derecho del Entretenimiento.

En la actualidad ejerce su actividad Profesional como Responsable del área de Information Technology de ECIJA, asesorando a clientes nacionales e internacionales, tanto en sede judicial como extrajudicial, en cuestiones relacionadas con Derecho del Entretenimiento y las Nuevas Tecnologías, centrando su actividad en la Propiedad Intelectual, Contratación de Software, Nombres de dominio, regulación jurídica de Internet y Redes Sociales. Alejandro compagina su labor profesional con la docencia en másteres universitarios, y es colaborador asiduo de prensa jurídica especializada.

Alejandro es, asimismo, miembro de la alianza europea de Nuevas Tecnologías ‘World IT Lawyers’, miembro de DENAE (Asociación Española de Derecho del Entretenimiento), y del Comité de Dirección del capítulo español de CSA (Cloud Security Alliance).

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