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Verdades y mentiras sobre el nuevo canon digital

5 febrero 2013 - 6:00 - Autor:

El pasado mes de diciembre, tras el revuelo suscitado por el dictado de la conocida como Sentencia Padawan, el Gobierno aprobó el Real Decreto 1657/2012, de 7 de diciembre, por el que se regula el procedimiento de pago de la compensación equitativa por copia privada con cargo a los Presupuestos Generales del Estado. Esto es, la norma que regula el establecimiento del “nuevo” canon digital. Falso, pues, que el canon digital haya dejado de existir. Verdadero que el viejo canon ha dejado paso a un nuevo canon digital.

Pero viejo y nuevo canon comparten espíritu. La existencia del canon está dirigida a compensar a los titulares derechos de propiedad intelectual por los ingresos que éstos dejan de percibir por razón de las reproducciones realizadas para uso privado. Es decir, que como el usuario tiene derecho a realizar una copia privada de una obra protegida por derechos de autor a la que haya accedido de manera legítima, el autor debe ser compensado económicamente por dicha pérdida. Falso pues que el canon legitime la piratería. Verdadero que éste sirve para que el autor que vea su obra copiada para fines privados, reciba una compensación por la pérdida de ingresos sufrida.

Pero la aprobación de la regulación antes expuesta ha supuesto un cambio radical en el modelo español de recaudación del canon. Fue la normativa precedente la encargada de definir los equipos, aparatos y soportes materiales digitales de reproducción sujetos al pago de la compensación, así como el importe de la compensación que debería ser satisfecho. Por el contrario, la nueva regulación acuerda que no sean los adquirentes de dispositivos gravados quienes asuman el pago del canon, sino que sean todos los españoles quienes hagan frente a éstos con cargo a los Presupuestos Generales del Estado.

Pues bien, si antes se entendía indiscriminado el canon porque era asumido por personas jurídicas, las cuales no se hallaban legitimadas para la realización de copias privadas y por tanto para el pago del mismo, la situación ha sido modificada ahora con la asignación del canon a los Presupuestos Generales del Estado, de manera que no solamente pagarán el canon quienes compren equipos y soportes gravados, sino que lo pagarán todos los ciudadanos españoles con sus impuestos.

Esta medida, bastante impopular –todo sea dicho-, ha traido también cola entre las propias entidades de gestión. De hecho, la propia SGAE ha bramado recientemente por la cantidad recibida, afirmando que antes recaudaban 115 millones de euros y ahora apenas reciben cinco con cargo a los Presupuestos Generales del Estado.

El cambio operado en la forma de recaudar este gravamen trae causa de la Directiva 2001/29/CE, que permite a los Estados de la Unión Europea el establecimiento de una compensación equitativa por copia privada. Lo que ocurre es que la normativa europea no regula explícitamente la forma, las modalidades de financiación y de percepción o la cuantía de dicha compensación, más allá de exigir que resulte adecuada al uso hecho de las obras protegidas y de indicar que un criterio útil para evaluar las circunstancias de cada caso concreto sería el posible daño que el acto en cuestión haya causado a los titulares de los derechos, no pudiendo dar origen a una obligación de pago determinadas situaciones en las que el perjuicio causado al titular del derecho haya sido mínimo.

Así, el legislador español, después de varias idas y venidas, ha considerado oportuno que los ciudadanos puedan beneficiarse del límite de copia privada como contraprestación a una parte de los impuestos que satisfacen y de los que se nutren los ingresos públicos.

No han faltado voces que defienden y critican la nueva regulación a partes iguales. De un lado, los que entienden que el canon, al igual que las carreteras, todos las pagamos con nuestros impuestos, las utilicemos o no. De otro, los que entienden que si indiscriminado era un canon que pagaban quienes adquirían dispositivos, los utilizasen o no para realizar copias privadas de obras protegidas, más indiscriminado será el que pagamos entre todos, compremos o no dispositivos o soportes susceptibles de realizar copias. Canon digital, verdades y mentiras.

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1º. Los obligados a satisfacer los importes estipulados en la anterior normativa eran los fabricantes de soportes y se iba repercutiendo en la cadena hasta el consumidor no “los adquirentes de dispositivos gravados”

2º. EL canon a partir de ahora queda asignado en una partida presupuestaria a cargo de los Presupuestos Generales del Estado y punto. No entiendo eso de: “no solamente pagarán el canon quienes compren equipos y soportes gravados”

Es alarmante el poco rigor jurídico que tiene esta columna…

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Alejandro Touriño

Alejandro Touriño en ECIJAAlejandro es Licenciado en Derecho por la Universidad de Santiago de Compostela; Máster en Derecho Internacional y Relaciones Internacionales por la Universidad Complutense de Madrid y Máster en Práctica Jurídica por la Escuela de Práctica Jurídica de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Ha realizado cursos de postgrado en instituciones de prestigio como la University of Brighton, la WIPO Academy o el Instituto de Empresa, en materias relacionadas con el Derecho Comparado, la Propiedad Intelectual y el Derecho del Entretenimiento.

En la actualidad ejerce su actividad Profesional como Responsable del área de Information Technology de ECIJA, asesorando a clientes nacionales e internacionales, tanto en sede judicial como extrajudicial, en cuestiones relacionadas con Derecho del Entretenimiento y las Nuevas Tecnologías, centrando su actividad en la Propiedad Intelectual, Contratación de Software, Nombres de dominio, regulación jurídica de Internet y Redes Sociales. Alejandro compagina su labor profesional con la docencia en másteres universitarios, y es colaborador asiduo de prensa jurídica especializada.

Alejandro es, asimismo, miembro de la alianza europea de Nuevas Tecnologías ‘World IT Lawyers’, miembro de DENAE (Asociación Española de Derecho del Entretenimiento), y del Comité de Dirección del capítulo español de CSA (Cloud Security Alliance).

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