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El mercadillo digital de Amazon

11 febrero 2013 - 6:00 - Autor:

Imaginen por un momento un “ebay.es” o un “segundamano.es” de objetos digitales: e-books, canciones, películas, series, videojuegos, etc. en libre venta de unos usuarios a otros. ¿Extraño? No tanto. Según hemos podido saber esta última semana, Amazon, el gigante norteamericano del comercio electrónico, ha obtenido la patente en EEUU para la puesta en marcha y explotación de un mercado digital de segunda mano. Dicho así, y teniendo en cuenta la particularidad de lo digital, que se multiplica sin esfuerzo y sin perder calidad, el registro de la patente suena extraño.

Extraño o quizás no tanto. Amazon reivindica en su patente la creación de un mercado digital o marketplace en el que los usuarios puedan revender libros digitales, canciones, películas, videojuegos, aplicaciones y, en general, cualquier intangible susceptible de transmisión entre terceros. Osea, que el usuario adquiere un contenido, se cansa de él y lo revende.

Sobre la base de la patente obtenida por Amazon, en el momento en que una persona pone a la venta un libro, una canción, o cualquier otro objeto digital que ya no quiere, al encontrar comprador, dicho objeto digital se borraría de forma automática del dispositivo del vendedor descargándose inmediatamente en el del comprador, quedando éste con la licencia para poder hacer uso de su compra.

Desde el punto de vista del usuario, el modelo suena atractivo. ¿Por qué pagar 3,99 Euros por una película en HD si alguien nos la vende por, por ejemplo, 0,99 euros? ¿por qué pagar 0,99 Euros por una canción en iTunes si la tenemos por apenas 50 céntimos en otro portal? Y así hasta en infinito.

Pero desde un punto de vista jurídico el modelo es bastante más complejo. El tema de la reventa de intangibles tiene ya una larga tradición en Europa, solventada, al menos en lo que a programas de ordenador se refiere, con una Sentencia del Tribunal de Justicia de la Unión Europea dictada en el caso UsedSoft contra Oracle de 2012.

La conclusión que alcanzó el Tribunal en ese caso fue que el autor de un software no puede oponerse a la reventa de licencias de segunda mano que permiten el uso de sus programas descargados de internet, considerando el Tribunal que el derecho exclusivo de distribución de una copia de un programa de ordenador cubierta por una licencia de ese tipo se agota en su primera venta.

La cuestión se planteó también en el mercado de la música digital. Así, en 2011 se produjo una amarga disputa entre EMI y la empresa ReDigiSin, plataforma que permite la reventa de archivos en formato mp3. En criterio de EMI el principio legal que permite a los consumidores comprar y después revender bienes materiales, denominado en inglés “first Sale doctrine”, no aplica a los contenidos digitales, en este caso la música.

La postura de ReDigiSin es totalmente opuesta. En el modelo propuesto por ReDigiSin el usuario descarga un software para determinar cuáles de sus archivos musicales pueden ser revendidos. La empresa realiza un análisis forense digital para verificar que la persona posee legalmente el archivo (y no que lo haya grabado de un CD o descargado ilegalmente). Su motor de verificación examina los datos asociados con el archivo para determinar cuál es la fuente original, quién lo compró y cuándo, y si ha pasado de un ordenador a otro. Si todo está correcto, la venta puede operar.

El malestar es obvio para los distribuidores de contenidos, que ven en estos modelos canibalizados sus circuitos tradicionales de distribución. Y es que el bien digital, que por su propia naturaleza no se deteriora, puede ser adquirido por un precio mucho más bajo por medio de la venta minorista entre usuarios, con la consiguiente pérdida de valor para el titular del contenido.

¿Legal? Pues en la medida en que el intangible sea adquirido de manera legal por el primer adquirente y no se realicen copias del mismo, parece que sí. Lo digital avanza, no cabe duda.

@AlexTourino

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¿Cómo evitar que el usuario copie el contenido en su ordenador o en una unidad externa y luego lo revenda? ¿Y si esta operación la repite hasta el infinito? Aún así, avanzar es inevitable

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Alejandro Touriño

Alejandro Touriño en ECIJAAlejandro es Licenciado en Derecho por la Universidad de Santiago de Compostela; Máster en Derecho Internacional y Relaciones Internacionales por la Universidad Complutense de Madrid y Máster en Práctica Jurídica por la Escuela de Práctica Jurídica de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Ha realizado cursos de postgrado en instituciones de prestigio como la University of Brighton, la WIPO Academy o el Instituto de Empresa, en materias relacionadas con el Derecho Comparado, la Propiedad Intelectual y el Derecho del Entretenimiento.

En la actualidad ejerce su actividad Profesional como Responsable del área de Information Technology de ECIJA, asesorando a clientes nacionales e internacionales, tanto en sede judicial como extrajudicial, en cuestiones relacionadas con Derecho del Entretenimiento y las Nuevas Tecnologías, centrando su actividad en la Propiedad Intelectual, Contratación de Software, Nombres de dominio, regulación jurídica de Internet y Redes Sociales. Alejandro compagina su labor profesional con la docencia en másteres universitarios, y es colaborador asiduo de prensa jurídica especializada.

Alejandro es, asimismo, miembro de la alianza europea de Nuevas Tecnologías ‘World IT Lawyers’, miembro de DENAE (Asociación Española de Derecho del Entretenimiento), y del Comité de Dirección del capítulo español de CSA (Cloud Security Alliance).

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